GeographyMain islandsMain citiesClimate
PopulationDemographicsDensity of populationEthnic groups
ReligionNational languageGovernment


Indonesia, the largest archipelago in the world, consists of 17508 islands, 6000 of which is uninhabited. It is situated in the South-East Asia, running for 8000 Km along the equator. The surface area of Indonesia is 9.8 million sqKm, 80% or 7.9 million sqKm of sea and 20% or 1.9 million sqKm of land.

Main islands

Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulavesi, Papua.

Main cities

Jakarta (capital); Surabaja, Bandung, Semarang, Jogjakarta in Java; Medan, Padang, Palembang, Bandar Lapung in Sumatra, Ujung Pandang/Makassar, Menado in Sulavesi; Banjarmasin, Pontianak, Samarinda in Kalimantanu, Denpasar in Bali. ▲ Top


Tropical climate characterised by the two (rainy and dry) seasons - monsoon. Temperature is between 16-35 degrees Celsius, humidity between 70% and 90%.


234 million (records from July 2007) ▲ Top


Recently, the annual demographic growth rate as recorded is 1.48%

Density of population

The population is not evenly spread. 60% of the population or 127 million people live in Java making Java the most densely populated island (approx. 945 people per square kilometre). In Bali it is 555 people per Km2, Sumatra – 88 people per Km2, and Papua 5 people per Km2. ▲ Top

Ethnic groups

There are 500 ethnic groups living between Sumatra and Papua. The Javanese ethnic group forms the largest group of ancient settlers. Other ethnic groups are Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabau group, Batak group, Buginese, Balinese, Ambonese, Dajak group, Sasak group, Aceh group and others. The rest of the groups are of foreign origin, like Chinese, Arabs and Indians.


Majority population (88%) are Muslims, 9% are Christians(Protestants and Catholics) and 3% are Hinduists and Buddhists.
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National language

The official Indonesian language is “Bahasa Indonesia“ which has its roots in “Malayu“ (Riau) language. Bahasa Indonesia is enriched by some 150 to 250 spoken and written languages and dialect from the whole of the Archipelago.


Indonesia is the Constitutional Republic with the President. The President is elected by direct votes from the voters – people and he is judicially appointed. The Government has functions in accordance with the Constitution of 1945, based on the Pancasila Doctrine (in Sanskrit: the five principles), defined within the Constitution as: faith in one and only one God, justice and civilised humanity, unity of Indonesia, democracy, led by the inner wisdom and reason among representatives, social justice for the entire people of Indonesia. ▲ Top